England Delineated by Dr John Aikin
Dr John Aikin (1747 – 1822)
Studied medicine in Edinburgh and practised in Great Yarmouth. He was a friend of Joseph Priestly, the scientist famous for chemistry.
Aikin first published England Delineated or, a “Geographical description of every county in England and Wales”; in 1788 without maps, the second and all subsequent editions except the last contained 43 simplistic maps probably intended for schoolchildren.
It was printed on Laid paper which is is a type of paper which has a ribbed texture imparted by the manufacturing process. In the pre-mechanical period of European papermaking (from the 12th century into the 19th century), laid paper was the main kind of paper produced. Its use, however, diminished in the 19th century, when it was largely supplanted by wove paper.
Before the mechanization of papermaking, paper was made by hand, using a wire sieve mounted in a rectangular mould to produce a single sheet at a time. A papermaker would dip the mould into a vat containing diluted pulp of hemp or fibres from rags, then lift it out, tilt it to spread the pulp evenly over the sieve and, as the water drained out between the wires, shake the mould to lock the fibres together. In the process, the pattern of the wires in the sieve was imparted to the sheet of paper.
It was printed from a hand engraved Copper Plate. The image was reproduced as lines and as mirror image onto the Plate by the Engraver using sharp metal tools called Burins
The Plate was then inked and wiped leaving Ink in the engraved lines and was then put into a Press with a sheet of damp paper causing the image to be transferred. It is this impression that imparts the finished image with its unique, three-dimensional character
The extreme force used in the Copperplate printing process also causes the formation of a Plate Mark.
This is an impression or indentation left on the margin of a print caused by the plate edges and often is regarded as a sign of the quality and authenticity of the print.
Interestingly Prehistoric Humans used Burins made from flakes of rock with a chisel-like edge for engraving or for carving wood or bone.
approx 115mm x 173mm
This is an authentic original old, Antique Map, published at the date stated above
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The image you see is a scan of the actual item. Please check the scan for any age related staining, foxing or damage prior to making your purchase. Nearly all old, antique or vintage Maps can have minor defects.
Rear of the Print
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Old Antique Map of Westmoreland printed from a Hand Engraved Copper Plate c.1800